The absolute minimum of drinking water need to survive is 1 quart/ approx 1 litre per person per day. this is in a relatively cool climate in an inactive state. In any situation, it is essential for our survival to establish a water supply and if we do not have one, it is vital that we find one. It may also be important to conserve this water.
Finding water using Plants and Animals
Follow the Animals to water
Other life forms also reliant on a daily water supply to survive, can help us find water. small birds, insects and animals will all be ‘hanging around’, near to, or traversing well trod paths to reach water.
Follow the plants to water
Certain plants need more water to grow than others and will have established themselves in places where there is sufficient underground water. Tap into their water source by digging a little well, nearby to their roots.
Wet loving plants include:
• Elder Sambucus
• Rushes Juncaceae, Reeds Poales
• Bamboo Poales Poaceae & Cattails Poales Typha, Cattails tuberous roots are also an excellent source of wild food.
• Willow Salix
Dousing for water
The energy field created by water can be enough to affect sensitive conductors, such as thin branches (traditionally willow), metal & you!
To douse for water, walk around holding out your divining branch or sticks ahead of you when close of over water you will feel a definite pull on the rods in one direction or another.
Use a Y shaped branch or 2 separate rods bent into L shapes and held these loosely in your hands. By practising water divination, we can improve our sensitivity & recognition of the subtle & invisible energy fields present around us all the time.
Cleaning, Sterilizing and Preserving Water
Cleaning and Sterilising
All dangerous pathogens are killed at a temperature above 160 F / 70 C within 30 minutes… the time it usually takes to boil water over a flame from cold. By the time it has reached boiling point (212F / 100C) the pathogens are killed, even at high altitude. If you can spare the evaporation that will take place boil for an extra 5 minutes.
The inactivation of the pathogens begins at 5C / 9F
Protzone cysts (Giardia,Crypto sporidium, Entamoeba) die at 131F / 55C
Bacteria (v.cholerea, e coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Typhi die at 140F / 60C
Hepatitis A virus dies at 149F / 65C
Water can be cleaned by filtering it through a filtering system constructed from natural materials. Fill a hollow vessel or some type of container with layers of filtering materials. A container can be made by hollowing out a log, or making a sack out of cloth, perhaps a trouser leg, or the arm of a secondary top, a discarded plastic bottle would work too.
A substantial layer of sand will remove many potentially harmful micro organisms & radio-active waste. Make the sand up to 1/4 of the total container size. In a more settled situation, use up to as much as 5 feet of sand.
Charcoal will remove odor, taste and even solvents. Charcoal is the black, charred, porous nougats of wood left over from a fire (ideally an earth oven, which can be built especially to make a good supply of charcoal) Use at least 2 layer of 3 inches of crushed charcoal or 2 layers(either side of the sand layer) each ¼ of the total size of the total container size. Charcoal nougats can also be added to a container of water, agitated and left to stand before filtering the water through a cloth or sand.
Fresh plant material:
Green leaves, plants and non toxic weeds can be added to filters to imitate natural pond filtering systems. Use at least ¼ of the total container size, crammed into the top of the container so that it can be easily replaced with fresh matter often.
Cloth, the closer the weave the better, makes a good final filter material, place this in the filtering container first.
Clay and Dung Water filter:
This water filter made from regular yellow/ red terracotta clay found 6 -8 inches below the surface in many areas of the world has been developed by Material scientist at The Australian National University, Tony Flynn.
Clay is dug up and dried through in the sun. it is the crushed and/or pressed through a sieve to remove large lumps, into a powder.
This powder is then thoroughly mixed with equal amounts of used coffee grounds, tea leaves or some other grainy waste substance, and crafted into a small cup/ bowl, the sides about as thick as your finger. Coffee grinds have proven to be very beneficial because of how they react in the next stage of this process-the firing.
Fire is then built – first a layer of grasses which will act as the starter fuel and then a layer of dung. The finished clay vessel lies on the dung and then covered over with more dung, 30 minutes after being lit the temperature rises to approx 700C degrees – then gradually up to about 950 C in the next 30 minute, given that you keep adding dung to the fire, keeping the filter covered.The filter/s is then removed from the fire to cool.
Silver has long been recognized for its anti bacterial properties and a beneficial affinity with water for this purpose. Storing water in a silver container is optimum, preventing the growth of bacteria over a long period of time. Placing silver jewelry in a container of water will also have a beneficial anti bacterial growth on the water.